# Primary Sources on Copyright - Record Viewer




Bernardo Giunti's privilege for Machiavelli's works, Vatican (1531)

Source: scanned from the manuscript held in the Vatican Secret Archives: ASVat, Armadio 40; tomo 37, c. 297r-v, doc. nr 573.

Bernardo Giunti's privilege for Machiavelli's works, Vatican (1531), Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900), eds L. Bently & M. Kretschmer, www.copyrighthistory.org

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            Chapter 1 Page 1 of 2 total

 To the esteemed sons, Descendants of Philippo Giunti, Citizens of Florence.

Esteemed sons, greetings. You have brought it to our attention that, ever since we recently
granted a concession, through a separate brief letter of ours to the esteemed son Antonio
Blado of Asula, printer of books in the Foster City, who was at that time about to print the
books of the late Niccolo Macchiavelli while he lived as a citizen of Florence, both the books
of the Histories and on the Prince as well as regarding his historical Discourses, that no other
person except him could presume to print all of the said books for ten years, or sell them once
printed or keep them for sale, without the permission of the said Antonio, otherwise incurring
penalties as contained in the said letter of ours, you, wherefore, who have the will and
consent of the descendants of Niccolo Macchiavelli himself, whose consent the said Antonio
at no time ever had, do not dare to print the abovementioned books of the Histories and on
the Prince and the and on Discourses. For which reason you have humbly made supplication
to us that we with regard to apostolic benevolence deem it worthy to grant license to you on
the basis of the consent of the descendants of the said late Niccolo that his books of Histories
and on the Prince and the Discourses be printed in Florence. We, considering it equitable
that the books of the said Niccolo be printed both in his Fatherland and also with respect to
the will of his descendants, and also attentive to the fact that the said Antonio has up until
now been able to sell for the greater part of the country the books of Discourses which he has
printed, and having been persuaded by your supplications herein, concede and grant to you
that you are free, by the apostolic authority and legal tenor of those present, to print the books
of the Histories and on the Prince and Discourses, and to sell them wherever they have been
printed and to keep them for sale, freely and with license and without incursion of any



Dilectis filiis Heredibus Phylippi Iunctae Civibus Floren.

Dilecti filii salutem. Exponi nobis fecistis quod cum nos
nuper per alias nostra in forma brevis litteras concesserimus dilecto filio
Antonio Blado de Asula impressori librorum in Alma Urbe
libros quondam Nicolai Machiavelli dum viveret civis Florentini tam histo-
riarum, et de principe quam super eius historicis discursibus
tunc impressuro ne quis alius preter eum dictos omnes libros ad decen-
nium imprimere, seu impressos vendere aut venales habere,sine ipsius
Antoni licentia presumeret, aliter poenas in dictis nostris litteris contentas
incurreret, vos propterea qui voluntatem et consensum heredum ipsius
Nicolai Machiavelli habetis, quorum consensum dictus Antonius nun-
quam habuit libros Historiarum et de principe ac discursuum sopradictos,
imprimere non audetis.Quamobren humiliter nobis supplicari fecistis
ut vobis licentiam de consensu heredum dicti quondam Nicolai libros eius
historiarum et de principe ac discursuum huiusmodi Florentiae imprimendi concedere de
benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos considerantes aequum esse ut libri dicti Nicolai et in eius
Patria et ad voluntatem suorum heredum imprimantur \attendentesque dictum Antonium iam pro maiori
parte libros discursuum quos impressit vendere hactenus potuisse, vestris huiusmodi/ supplicationibus
inclinati vobis ut historiarum et de Principe ac discursuum
libros de consensu heredum dicti Nicolai Florentiae tamen imprimere
et impressos ubilibet vendere et venales habere libere et
licite et sine ullius poenae incursu valeatis auctoritate apostolica
tenore presentium concedimus et indulgemus. Inhibentes ubique
sub excommunicatione in terris vere nostris etiam sub amissionis librorum vobis


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